Scientific Research & References

The references below are for information purposes only and do not represent any claims or indications of use by Ultra Immune. This list of resources is not intended to be exhaustive but only a representative reference guide. We advise each visitor and customer to compete their own diligence and research into each ingredient in our product. If you have any questions regarding the use of our products, please consult your healthcare professional.

Immune Health, Function and Immunology

Parham P. The Immune System. Third Edition. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC; 2009

Herbal Ingredients and General Nutrition

Schulz V, et al. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician’s Guide to Herbal Medicine, 4th ed. New York: Springer; 2001.

Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press; 1999.

Newall C, et al. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals, 1st ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996.

Huang K. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press; 1999.

Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(suppl):624S-636S.

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2001.

Aloe Vera Inner Leaf [Acemannan]

McAnalley B. The Science behind Aloe: The Healing Plant. First Edition. 2009

Im SA, Lee, YH, Lee MK, Park Yi, Lee S, Kim K, Lee CK. Arch Pharm Res. In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe Vera gel. Arch Pharm Res. 2010 Mar;33(3):451-6. Epub2010.

Im SA, OhST, SongS, et al. Identification of optimal molecular size of modified Aloe polysaccharides with maximum immunomodulatory activity. International Immunopharmacology. 2005;5(2):271-279.

Zhang L. Tizard IR. Activation of a mouse macrophage cell line by acemannan: the major carbohydrate fraction from Aloe Vera gel. Immunopharmacology. 1996Nov;35(2):119-28.

Bland, J. Effect of orally consumed Aloe Vera Juice on Gastrointestinal Function in Normal Humans. Preventative Medicine, March-April 1985.

Shimizu M, et al. Interaction between Food Substances and the Intestinal Epithelium. Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, bunkyou-ku, Tokyo 113-8657. Japan. 2010;Online Publication, February 7,2010.

Pennissi AB, Rudolph MI, Piezzi RS. Role of mast cells in gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Biocell. 2003Aug;27(2):163-72.

Vinson JA, Al Kharrat H, Andreoli L. Effect of Aloe Vera preparations on the human bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Phytomedicine. 2005 Nov;12(10):760-5.

Lim BO, Seong NS, Choue RW, Kim JD, Lee HY, Kim SY, Yu BP, Jeon TI, Park DK. Efficacy of dietary Aloe Vera supplementation of hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Aug;49(4):292-6.

Agrawal OP. Prevention of atheromatous heart disease. Angiologoy. 1985 Aug;36(8):485-92.

Marazorati M, et.al. In vitro modulation of the human hastointestinal microbial community by plant-derived polysaccharide-rich dietary supplements. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010 May 15; 139(3): 168-76.

Yagi A, Nakamori J, Yamada T, Iwase H, Tanaka T, Kaneo Y, Qiu J, Orndorff S. In vivo metabolism of aloemanna. Planta Med. 1999 Jun; 65(5): 417-20.

Robert A, Sinnott, Jane Ramberg, Jakob M. Kirchner, Cherie Oubre, Christy Duncan, Stephen Boyd, and John E. Kains. Utilization of Arabinogalactan, Aloe Vera gel polysaccharides and a mixed saccaride dietary supplement by human colonic bacteria in vitro. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, Volume 2, Number 2/3, pp.97-104 (2007).

Mori T., Murakami M., Okummura M., et al. Mechanism of macrophage activation by chitin derivatives. J Vet Med Sci. 205; 67(1):51-56.

Im SA, Oh ST, Song S, et al. Identification of optimal molecular size of modified Aloe polysaccharides with maximum immunomodulatory activity. International Immunopharmacology. 2005;5(2):271-279.

Leung MY, Lie C, Zhu LF, et al. Chemical and biological characterization of a polysaccharide biological response modifier from Aloe veraL. Var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg. Glycobiology. 2004;14(6):501-510.

Schepetkin IA, Quinn MT. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential. International Immunopharmacology. 2006;6(3):317-333.

Alton G, Hasilik M, Niehues R, et al. Direct utilization of mannose for mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. Glycobiology. 1998;8(3):285-295.

Taylor ME. Structure and function of the macrophage mannose receptor. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2001;33:105-121

Kemp MC. The antiviral and immunopotentiating effects of acemannan: a polydispersed –(1,4)-linked acetylated mannan. Paper presented at: Cambridge Healthtech Institute Conference on Glycotechnology;1993/05/17/, 1993.

Montaner JS, Gill J, Singer J, et al. Double-blinded placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced immunodeficiency virus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol

Kuo PL, Lin TC, Lin CC. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53-dependent and p21-dependent apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cell lines. Life Sci. 2002 Sep 6;71(16):1879-92

Zhang L, Tizard IR. Activation of a mouse macrophage cell line by acemannan: the major carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera gel. Immunopharmacology. 1996 Nov;35(2):119-28.

Lee JK, Lee MK, Yun YP, Kim Y, Kim JS, Kim YS, et al. Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Jul;1(7):1275-84.

Pugh N, Ross SA, ElSohly MA, Pasco DS. Characterization of Aloeride, a new high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Feb;49(2):1030-4.

Lee KH, Kim JH, Lim DS, Kim CH. Anti-leukaemic and anti-mutagenic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 May;52(5):593-8.

Yagi A, Kabash A, Okamura N, Haraguchi H, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin derivatives in Aloe vera. Planta medica. 2002 Nov;68(11):957-60.

Pigatto PD, Guzzi G. Aloe linked to thyroid dysfunction. Archives of medical research. 2005 Sep-Oct;36(5):608.

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd ed. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Med; 2001.

Robbers JE, et al. Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.

Foster S, et al. Tyler’s Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. New York: Haworth Herbal Press; 1999.

Tyler, V. Herbs of Choice, the Therapeutical Use of Phytomedicinals. Binghamton, New York: Pharmaceutical Press; 1994.

Lissoni P, Rovelli F, Brivio F, et al. A randomized study of chemotherapy versus biochemotherapy with chemotherapy plus Aloe arborescens in patients with metastatic cancer. In Vivo. 2009 Jan-Feb;23(1):171-5.

White Pine Cone

Nagata K., Sakagami H, Harada H, et al. Inhibition of influenza virus infection by pine cone anti-tumor substances. Antiviral Res. 13:11-22. 1990.

Sakagami H, Yukata K, Nobuhiko K, et al. Antitumor, antiviral and immunopotentiating activities of pine cone extracts: Potential medicinal efficacy of natural and synthetic lignin-related materials (Review). Anticancer Research. 11:881-888. 1991.

Eleuthero Root

Park SH, Kim SK, Shin IH. Effects of AIF on Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;13(1):33-7.

Hwang YC, Jeong IK, Ahn KJ, et al. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2009;27(5):584-90.

Lee YJ, Chung HY, Kwak HK, Yoon S. The effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal women. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Oct 10 2008;375(1):44-48.

Tohda C, Ichimura M, Bai Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J Pharmacol Sci. Jul 2008;107(3):329-339.

Szolomicki J, Samochowiec L, Wojcicki J, Drozdzik M, Szolomicki S. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defence and physical fitness in man. Phytother Res. 2000 Feb;14(1):30-5. Erratum in: Phytother Res 2000 May;14(3):225.

Baranov AI. Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1982;6:339-53.

Lin QY, Jin LJ, Cao ZH, Xu YP. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Acanthopanax senticosus extract in RAW264.7 macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. Jul 23 2008;118(2):231-236.

Jung CH, Jung H, Shin YC, et al. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J Ethnopharmacol. Aug 15 2007;113(1):183-187.

Lin QY, Jin LJ, Cao ZH, et al. Acanthopanax senticosus suppresses reactive oxygen species production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Phytother Res. Jun 2008;22(6):740-745.

Yamazaki, T and Tokiwa, T. Isofraxidin, a coumarin component from Acanthopanax senticosus, inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression and cell invasion of human hepatoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2010;33(10) 1716—1722.

Friedman JA, Taylor SA, McDermott W, Alikhani P. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit Care. 2007;7(1):76-80.

Dowling EA, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:482-9.

Arushanian EB, Shikina IB. Improvement of light and color perception in humans upon prolonged administration of eleutherococcus. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2004;67(4):64-6.

Bleakney TL. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Holist Nurs Pract. 2008 Jul-Aug;22(4):220-4. Review.

Cicero AF, Derosa G, Brillante R, et al. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004;(9):69-73.

Davydov M, Krikorian AD. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(3):345-93.

Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10(4):444-51.

Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Res. 2001;50(3):223-8.

Goulet ED, Dionne IJ. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(1):75-83.

Gruenwald J, Brednler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 4th ed. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare; 2007:751-753.

Gyllenhaal C, Merritt SL, Peterson SD, et al. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(2):229-251.

Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al., Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med. 2004;34(1):51-61.

Kropotov AV, Kolodnyak OL, Koldaev VM. Effects of Siberian ginseng extract and ipriflavone on the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002;133(3):252-4.

LaValle JB, Krinsky DL, Hawkins EB, et al. Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide. Hudson, OH:LexiComp; 2000: 444-445.

Roxas M, Jurenka J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Mar;12(1):25-48. Review.

Pleurotus Ostreatus [Oyster Mushroom]

Wang H, Gao J, Ng TB. A new lectin with highly potent antihepatoma and antisarcoma activities from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 275(3):810-816.

Chu KT, Xia L, Ng TB. Pleurostrin, an antifungal peptide from the oyster mushroom. Peptides 2005.

Hossain S, et al. Dietary mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) ameliorates atherogenic lipid in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2003; 30(7):470-475.

Bobek P and Galbavy S. Effect of pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) on the antioxidant status of the organism and on dimethylhydrazine-induced precancerous lesions in rat colon. Br J Biomed Sci 2001; 58(3):164-168.

Antihyperlipidemic effects of Oyster mushrooms. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00069524. Accessed May 13, 2011.

Chorvathova V, et al. Effect of oyster fungus on glycaemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes. Physiol Res 1993; 42(6):175-9.

Wasonga CG, Okoth SA, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CO. Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52.

Jedinak A, Sliva D. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. Int J Oncol. 2008 Dec;33(6):1307-13.

Chen JN, Wang YT, Wu JS. A glycoprotein extracted from golden oyster mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus exhibiting growth inhibitory effect against U937 leukemia cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 12;57(15):6706-11.

Sarangi I, Ghosh D, Bhutia SK, et al. Anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia-derived proteoglycans. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Aug;6(8):1287-97.

Reishi Mushroom

Chen HS, Tsai YF, Lin S, et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. Nov 1 2004;12(21):5595-5601.

Gao Y, Zhou S, Wen J, et al. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat. Life Sci. Dec 27 2002;72(6):731-745.

Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. Mar 17 1997;70(6):699-705.

Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF. Ganoderma lucidum (“Lingzhi”), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. Br J Nutr. Feb 2004;91(2):263-269.

Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, et al. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. Aug 2003;32(3):201-215.

Noguchi M, Kakuma T, Tomiyasu K, et al. Randomized clinical trial of an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Asian J Androl. Sep 2008;10(5):777-785.

Noguchi M, Kakuma T, Tomiyasu K, et al. Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study. Asian J Androl. Jul 2008;10(4):651-658.

Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms. 3rd ed. Loveland (OR): Interweave Press; 1996.

Tao J, Feng KY. Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation. J Tongji Med Univ. 1990;10(4):240-243.

Gill SK, Rieder MJ. Toxicity of a traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma lucidum, in children with cancer. Can J Clin Pharmacol. Summer 2008;15(2):e275-285.

Wang X, Zhao X, Li D, et al. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A activities in BCG-immune hepatic injury in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. Sep 2007;30(9):1702-1706.

Li YB, Wang R, Wu HL, et al. Serum amyloid A mediates the inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells. Oncol Rep. Sep 2008;20(3):549-556.

Mao T, van De Water J, Keen CL, et al. Two mushrooms, Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum, can stimulate cytokine gene expression and proliferation in human T lymphocytes. Int J Immunother 1999;15(1):13-22.

Chan WK, Cheung CC, Law HK, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function. J Hematol Oncol. 2008;1(1):9.

Noguchi M, Kakuma T, Tomiyasu K, et al. Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study. Asian J Androl. 2008 Jul;10(4):651-8.

Weng CJ, Yen GC. The in vitro and in vivo experimental evidences disclose the chemopreventive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2010 May;27(5):361-9.

Astragalus Root

Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM. Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. II. Reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression by administration of fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vivo. J Clin Lab Immunol 1988;25:125-9.

Taixiang W, Munro AJ, Guanjian L. Chinese medical herbs for chemotherapy side effects in colorectal cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jan 25;(1):CD004540.

Cui R, He J, Wang B, et al. Suppressive effect of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge on chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;51(1):75-80.

Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Lett. Jul 8 2007;252(1):43-54.

Yu L, Lu Y, Li J, Wang H. Identification of a gene associated with astragalus and angelica’s renal protective effects by silver staining mRNA differential display. Chin Med J (Engl) 2002;115:923-7.

Ahmed MS, Hou SH, Battaglia MC, et al. Treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy with the herb Astragalus membranaceus. Am J Kidney Dis. Dec 2007;50(6):1028-1032.

Ai P, Yong G, Dingkun G, et al. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human natriuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. J Ethnopharmacol. Mar 28 2008;116(3):413-421.

Shen HH, Wang K, Li W, et al. Astragalus Membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition.J Ethnopharmacol. Mar 5 2008;116(2):363-369.

Chen KT, Su CH, Hsin LH, et al. Reducing fatigue of athletes following oral administration of huangqi jianzhong tang. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002 Aug;23(8):757-61.

Lu MC, Yao CH, Wang SH, et al. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Trauma. 2010 Feb;68(2):434-40.

Ashwagandha Root

Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev. Aug 2000;5(4):334-346.

Dafni A, Yaniv Z. Solanaceae as medicinal plants in Israel. J Ethnopharmacol. Aug 1994;44(1):11-18.

Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, et al. The relationship between chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro. Phytother Res. Oct 2008;22(10):1342-1348.

Widodo N, Kaur K, Shrestha BG, et al. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin Cancer Res. Apr 1 2007;13(7):2298-2306.

Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol. May-Jun 1991;33(1-2):91-95.

Kulkarni SK, Akula KK, Dhir A. Effect of Withania somnifera Dunal root extract against pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system. Indian J Exp Biol. Jun 2008;46(6):465-469.

Stan SD, Hahm ER, Warin R, et al. Withaferin A causes FOXO3a- and Bim-dependent apoptosis and inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in vivo. Cancer Res. Sep 15 2008;68(18):7661-7669.

Bhat J, Damle A, Vaishnav PP, et al. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):129-35.

Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, et al. Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974. PLoS One. 2009 Aug 31;4(8):e6628.

Sriranjini SJ, Pal PK, Devidas KV, Ganpathy S. Improvement of balance in progressive degenerative cerebellar ataxias after Ayurvedic therapy: a preliminary report. Neurol India. 2009 Mar-Apr;57(2):166-71.

van der Hooft CS, Hoekstra A, Winter A, et al. [Thyrotoxicosis following the use of ashwagandha]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Nov 19;149(47):2637

Maitake Mushroom

Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms, 3rd ed. Loveland (CO): Interweave Press; 1996.

Adachi K, Nanba H, Kuroda H. Potentiation of host-mediated antitumor activity in mice by beta glucan obtained from Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull 1987;35:262-70.

Kubo K, Aoki H. Nanba H. Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17:1106-10.

Horio H, Ohtsuru M. Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2001;47:57-63.

Miura NN. Blood clearance of (1–>3)-beta-D-glucan in MRL lpr/lpr mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1996;13:51-7.

Ohno N, et al. Characterization of the antitumor glucan obtained from liquid-cultured Grifola frondosa. Chem Pharm Bull 1986;34:1709-1715.

Nanba H, Kubo K. Maitake D-fraction: Healing and preventive potential for cancer. J Orthomolecular Med 1997;12:43-9.

Konno S, et al. A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2001 Dec;18(12):1010

Yamada Y, et al. Antitumor effect of orally administered extracts from fruit body of grifola frondosa (maitake). Chemotherapy 1990;38:790-6.

Hong L, Xun M, Wutong W. Anti-diabetic effect of an alpha-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on KK-Ay mice. Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;59(4):575-82.

Masuda Y, Murata Y, Hayashi M, Nanba H. Inhibitory effect of MD-Fraction on tumor metastasis: involvement of NK cell activation and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression in lung vascular endothelial cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2008 Jun;31(6):1104-8.

Deng G, Lin H, Seidman A, et al. A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2009, March 1.

Harada N, Kodama N, Nanba H. Relationship between dendritic cells and the D-fraction-induced Th-1 dominant response in BALB/c tumor-bearing mice. Cancer Lett. 2003;192(2):181-7.

Shomori K, Yamamoto M, Arifuku I, Teramachi K, Ito H. Antitumor effects of a water-soluble extract from Maitake (Grifola frondosa) on human gastric cancer cell lines. Oncol Rep. 2009 Sep;22(3):615-20.

Lin H, de Stanchina E, Zhou XK, et al. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Louie B, Rajamahanty S, Won J, Choudhury M, Konno S. Synergistic potentiation of interferon activity with maitake mushroom d-fraction on bladder cancer cells. BJU Int. 2009 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Lee JS, Park SY, Thapa D, et al. Grifola frondosa water extract alleviates intestinal inflammation by suppressing TNF-alpha production and its signaling. Exp Mol Med. 2010 Feb 28;42(2):143-54.

Masuda Y, Ito K, Konishi M, Nanba H. A polysaccharide extracted from Grifola frondosa enhances the anti-tumor activity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell-based immunotherapy against murine colon cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010 Oct;59(10):1531-41.

Shitake Mushroom

Ng ML, Yap AT. Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med 2002;8(5): 581-589.

Ngai PH, Ng TB. Lentin, a novel and potent antifungal protein from shitake mushroom with inhibitory effects on activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells. Life Sci. Nov 14 2003; 73(26): 3363-3374.

Israilides C, Kletsas D, Arapoglou D, et al. In vitro cytostatic and immunomodulatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes. Phytomedicine 2008.

Akamatsu S, Watanabe A, Tamesada M, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of extracts from Lentinus edodes mycelia on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004; 27(12): 1957-1960.

De Lima PL, Delmanto RD, Sugui MM, et al. Letinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (Shiitake) modulates genotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by alkylating agents in vivo. Mutat Res. 2001; 496(1-2): 23-32.

Shouji N, Takada K, Fukushima K, Hirasawa M. Anticaries effect of a component from shiitake (an edible mushroom). Caries Res 2000; 34(1): 94-98.

DeVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA, Sun B. Effects of a mushroom mycelium extract on the treatment of prostate cancer. Urology 2002; 60(4): 640-644.

Gordon M, Bihari B, Goosby E, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIV-positive patients: a phase I/II trial. J Med 1998; 29(5-6): 305-330.

Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms, 3rd ed. Loveland (CO): Interweave Press; 1996.

Sia GM, Candish JK. Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line. Phytother Res 1999;13(2):133-7.

Isoda N, Eguchi Y, Nukaya H, et al. Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology. 2009 Mar-Apr;56(90):437-41.

Oba K, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J. Individual patient based meta-analysis of lentinan for unresectable/recurrent gastric cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009 Jul;29(7):2739-45.

Hazama S, Watanabe S, Ohashi M, et al. Efficacy of orally administered superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009 Jul;29(7):2611-7.